Dedre Gentner



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The Analogical Mind

Analogy has been the focus of extensive research in cognitive science over the past two decades. Through analogy, novel situations and problems can be understood in terms of familiar ones. Indeed, a case can be made for analogical processing as the very core of cognition. This is the first book to span the full range of disciplines concerned with analogy. Its contributors represent cognitive, developmental, and comparative psychology; neuroscience; artificial intelligence; linguistics; and philosophy. The book is divided into three parts. The first part describes computational models of analogy as well as their relation to computational models of other cognitive processes. The second part addresses the role of analogy in a wide range of cognitive tasks, such as forming complex cognitive structures, conveying emotion, making decisions, and solving problems. The third part looks at the development of analogy in children and the possible use of analogy in nonhuman primates.

Contributors Miriam Bassok, Consuelo B. Boronat, Brian Bowdle, Fintan Costello, Kevin Dunbar, Gilles Fauconnier, Kenneth D. Forbus, Dedre Gentner, Usha Goswami, Brett Gray, Graeme S. Halford, Douglas Hofstadter, Keith J. Holyoak, John E. Hummel, Mark T. Keane, Boicho N. Kokinov, Arthur B. Markman, C. Page Moreau, David L. Oden, Alexander A. Petrov, Steven Phillips, David Premack, Cameron Shelley, Paul Thagard, Roger K. R. Thompson, William H. Wilson, Phillip Wolff.





Table of Contents

Introduction: The Place of Analogy in Cognition

Keith J. Holyoak, Dedre Gentner & Boicho N. Kokinov

I. Computational and Theoretical Approaches

2. Exploring Analogy in the Large

Kenneth D. Forbus

3. Integrating Memory and Reasoning in Analogy-Making: The AMBR Model

Boicho N. Kokinov & Alexander A. Petrov

4. The STAR-2 Model for Mapping Hierarchically Structured Analogs

William H. Wilson, Graeme S. Halford, Brett Gray &Steven Phillips

5. Toward an Understanding of Analogy Within a Biological Symbol System

Keith J. Holyoak & John E. Hummel

II. Arenas of Analogical Thought

6. Metaphor is Like Analogy

Dedre Gentner, Brian Bowdle, Phillip Wolff & Consuelo Boronat

7. Conceptual Blending and Analogy

Gilles Fauconnier

8. Setting Limits on Analogy: Why Conceptual Combination is Not Structural Alignment

Mark T. Keane & Fintan Costello

9. The Analogical Paradox: Why Analogy is So Easy in Naturalistic Settings Yet So Difficult in the Psychological Laboratory

Kevin Dunbar

10. Emotional Analogies and Analogical Inference

Paul Thagard & Cameron Shelley

11. Analogy and Analogical Comparison in Choice

Arthur B. Markman & C. Page Moreau

12. Semantic Alignments in Mathematical Word Problems

Miriam Bassok

III. Developmental and Comparative Approaches

13. Analogical Reasoning in Children

Usha Goswami

14. Can an Ape Reason Analogically? Comprehension and Production of Analogical Problems by Sarah, a Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

David L. Oden, Roger K. R. Thompson & David Premack


15. Analogy as the Core of Cognition

Douglas R. Hofstadter




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Language in Mind

The idea that the language we speak influences the way we think has evoked perennial fascination and intense controversy. According to the strong version of this hypothesis, called the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis after the American linguists who propounded it in the 1950s, languages vary in their semantic partitioning of the world, and the structure of one's language influences how one understands the world. Thus speakers of different languages perceive the world differently.

Although the last two decades have been marked by extreme skepticism concerning the possible effects of language on thought, recent theoretical and methodological advances in cognitive science have given the question new life. Research in linguistics and linguistic anthropology has revealed striking differences in cross-linguistic semantic patterns, and cognitive psychology has developed subtle techniques for studying how people represent and remember experience. It is now possible to test predictions about how a given language influences the thinking of its speakers.

Language in Mind includes contributions from both skeptics and believers and from a range of fields. It contains work in cognitive psychology, cognitive development, linguistics, anthropology, and animal cognition. The topics discussed include space, number, motion, gender, theory of mind, thematic roles, and the ontological distinction between objects and substances. The contributors include Melissa Bowerman, Eve Clark, Jill de Villiers, Peter de Villiers, Giyoo Hatano, Stan Kuczaj, Barbara Landau, Stephen Levinson, John Lucy, Barbara Malt, Dan Slobin, Steven Sloman, Elizabeth Spelke, and Michael Tomasello.





Table of Contents
I. Introduction

1. Whither Whorf

Dedre Gentner and Susan Goldin-Meadow

II. Position Statements

2. Languages and Representations

Eve V. Clark

3. Language and Mind: Let's Get the Issues Straight

Steve Levinson

4. The Key is Social Cognition

Michael Tomasello

III. Language as Lens: Does the Language We Acquire Influence How We See the World?

5. Sex, Syntax, and Semantics

Lera Boroditsky, Lauren A. Schmidt, and Webb Phillips

6. Speaking vs. Thinking About Objects and Actions

Barabara C. Malt, Steven A. Sloman, and Silvia P. Gennari

7. The Effects of Spatial Lanuage on Spatial Representation: Setting Some Boundaries

Edward Munnich and Barbara Landau

8. Language and Thought Online: Cognitive Consequences of Linguistic Relativity

Dan I. Slobin

IV. Language as Tool Kit: Does the Language We Acquire Augment Our Capacity for Higher Order Representation and Reasoning?

9. Why We're So Smart

Dedre Gentner

10. Does Language Help Animals Think?

Stan Kuczaj and Jennifer L. Hendry

11. What Makes Us Smart? Core Knowledge and Natural Language

Elizabeth Spelke

12. Conceptual and Linguistic Factors in Inductive Projection: How Do Young Children Recognize Commonalities Between Animals and Plants?

Kayoko Inagaki and Giyoo Hatano

13. Language For Thought: Coming to Understand False Beliefs

Jill G. de Villiers and Peter A. de Villiers

V. Language as Category Maker: Does the Language We Acquire Influence Where We Make Our Category Distinctions?

14. Space Under Construction: Language-Specific Spatial Categorization in First Language Acquisition

Melissa Bowerman and Soonja Choi

15. Reevaluating Linguistic Relativity: Language-Specific Categories and the Role of Universal Ontological Knowledge in the Construal of Individuation

Mutsumi Imai and Reiko Mazuka

16. Interaction of Language Type and Referent Type in the Development of Nonverbal Classification Preferences

John A. Lucy and Suzanne Gaskins

17. Thought Before Language: Do We Think Ergative?

Susan Goldin-Meadow





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Mental Models


This classic volume compiles and describes interdisciplinary research on the formal nature of human knowledge about the world. Three key dimensions that characterize mental models research are examined: the nature of the domain studied, the nature of the theoretical approach, and the nature of the methodology.





Table of Contents

I. Introduction

Donald A. Norman

II. Phenomenology and the Evolution of Intuition

Andrea A. diSessa



Ohm's P-Prim

Rolling and Pivoting

A Note on Abstraction

Persistent False Intuitions

Summary and Conclusion


III. Surrogates and Mappings: Two Kinds of Conceptual Models for Interactive Devices

Richard M. Young

Different Kinds of Mental Models

Surrogate Models

Task/Action Mapping Models



IV. Qualitative Reasoning about Space and Motion

Kenneth D. Forbus


Spatial Descriptions

Describing a Particular Motion

Describing Possible Motions

Answering Questions



V. The Role of Problem Representation in Physics

Jill H. Larkin

Problem Representations

Empirical Studies

Possibilities for Instruction



VI. Flowing Waters or Teeming Crowds: Mental Models of Electricity

Dedre Gentner and Donald R. Gentner

A Structure-Mapping Theory of Analogical Thinking

Two Analogies for Electricity

Electricity and Water -- An Analogy

Experiments on Analogies for Electricity

Experiment 1

Experiment 2



VII. Human Reasoning About a Simple Physical System

Michael D. Williams, James, D. Hollan, and Albert L. Stevens


An Example of the Phenomenology

Defining Mental Model

An Analysis of a Protocol

A Critique


Appendix 1: Questions


VIII. Assumptions and Ambiguities in Mechanistic Mental Models

Johan de Kleer and John Seely Brown


Qualitative Simulations

Ambiguities, Assumptions and Mechanisms

Implications of the Theory


IX. Understanding Micronesian Navigation

Edwin Hutchins

Caroline Island Navigation

Some Anomalous Interpretations

An Alternative Model



X. Conceptual Entities

James G. Greeno

Analogies Between Domains

Reasoning with General Methods

Computational Efficiency




XI. Using the Method of Fibres in Mecho to Calculate Radii of Gyration

Alan Bundy and Lawrence Byrd


Continuous Measure Systems

Choosing Continuous Measure Systems


A Worked Example



XII. When Heat and Temperature Were One

Marianne Wiser and Susan Carey

The Experimenters' Enterprise

Source-Recipient Model

Evidence for the Source-Recipient Model

Studies of Artificial Freezing

The Experimenters' Thermal Concepts

Were Heat and Temperature Differentiated?

What Next?

History of Science and the Novice-Expert Shift


XIII. Naive Theories of Motion

Michael McCloskey

Misconceptions about Motion

A Naive Theory of Motion

Individual Differences

Historical Parallels: The Medieval Impetus Theory

Naive Theories and Physics Instruction

A Brief Review of Related Research

Concluding Remarks


XIV. A Conceptual Model Discussed by Galileo and Used Intuitively by Physics Students

John Clement

The "Motion Implies a Force" Preconception

Discussion of Similar Arguments in Galileo's Writings

Summary of Characteristics for the "Motion Implies a Force" Preconception

Post Course Results

Implication for Instruction

Theoretical Implications


Appendix 1: Example of a Transcript from the Rocket Problem

Author Index

Subject Index





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